演讲:在一带一路沿线创造就业岗位和培养企业家——中国能提供什么帮助?

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  • 创造就业岗位和培养企业家是可持续发展的关键。
  • 中国通过一带一路倡议至少能从三方面帮助全球创造工作岗位和培养企业家。
  • 中国地方政府应当利用好“走出去”战略开展创新,加速从低端制造业转型升级。

尊敬的各位来宾,女士们、先生们:

上午好。我很荣幸应裕华区和石家庄市政府邀请参加今天的活动,与有着多样化背景的来宾分享对中国国际合作的观点和看法。

国际劳工组织数据显示,2015年全球失业人口超过2.04亿。从现在到2030年,为满足新进入劳动市场人口的就业需求,每年要新增4.7亿个就业岗位。这不是一项容易的工作,这相当于要为中国一半人口创造就业岗位。

正由于此,创造就业岗位是可持续发展和长期减贫的关键所在。早在上世纪九十年代联合国制定千年发展目标时,就业岗位就是最重要的目标之一。联合国制定的千年发展目标第一大项中有三个目标涉及就业问题,包括女性和年轻人就业。

2015年联合国确定了可持续发展目标,同样对就业问题高度重要。在17个可持续发展目标中,第八个目标就与就业岗位有关,提出到2030年让男性和女性都能实现全面就业,获得体面的工作岗位。

那么,这与中国有什么关系?同今天石家庄市举行的峰会又有什么关系呢?

中国自身当然要实现可持续发展目标。此外,中国提出一带一路倡议,这为中国提供了关键的国际舞台。

随着中国推进一带一路倡议,中国有望助力其他国家可持续发展目标第八项的实现,并提供真正的支持。

具体要怎么助力、怎么支持呢?

中国能在三个方面提供帮助。首先,中国自身做好就业岗位创造和企业家培养工作,那么一带一路沿线国家能从中得到很好的借鉴。其次,中国可通过南南合作帮助其他国家实施创造就业岗位、培养企业家精神的具体项目。第三,中国可欢迎一带一路沿线国家人士来华工作或创办企业。

今天我们就要谈谈这充满潜力的三个方面。

首先看看中国的政策实践是否有借鉴意义。

中国是全球最大雇主,自然在一些方面取得了成功。长期以来,中国的就业状况发生了巨大变化。上世纪九十年代,国有企业改革曾造成大量人员下岗,失业的人数大量增加。中国统计失业的方法并不非常清晰。官方数据未计算非登记在册的失业人员,比方说非正式经济领域人员和未注册的农民工。

除失业统计问题之外,进入21世纪,就业状况似乎趋于稳定,但失业率仍有上升危险,特别是受过更好教育、技能更高的员工面临新的失业问题。当前总失业人口(不仅限于统计在册的失业者)据估算总数约2300万人,这是石家庄人口的两倍。

这些现象背后有哪些政策因素?对其他国家有何借鉴意义?

我来自发展中国家肯尼亚,我并不赞同有些观察家所谓的中国情况非常特殊的说法。不同非洲国家之间的思维和经济情况倒是比较相似。不过在就业政策方面,中国的情况跟一些发展中国家颇不相同(不过不是完全不同)。

举例来说,中国过去劳工法规很少,也没有强大的工会。中国有背井离乡打工的农民工现象,大多数贫困国家快速城市化过程中出现这种农民工并不罕见,不过此前户口制度限制农民工外出务工的情况相当特殊。

中国通过工业化进程创造了许多工作岗位。中国发展经济特区的政策尤其为创造工作岗位发挥了重大作用。许多其他国家也在推进经济特区建设,或者希望采取这种方法。

中国还推出了一些非常重要的特殊政策,逐渐将劳动市场从完全由政府管理的模式更多推向私营领域,包括过去建立乡镇企业,近期鼓励企业创新,为中小企业设立发展资金,建立高新区等。这些经验都很值得分享。

最后,中国有制定和实施最低工资、失业保险和职业培训等政策的经验,这些都很值得探讨。

中国过去和现在的变革对其他国家都很有意义。当然,各国情况可能各有差异。非正式经济体的体量可能是一个重要差异因素,中国的非正式经济体量很大。

在中国与一带一路沿线国家交流经验时,应当考虑到各国的差异。

以上就是中国的经验部分。中国如何同一带一路沿线国家合作呢?如何帮助沿线国家创造工作岗位、培养企业家呢?

在一带一路沿线许多国家,失业率都很高,特别是与中国相比。非洲大陆的失业问题或许是最严重的。津巴布韦失业率差不多是全球最高的,而最新数据显示肯尼亚、塞内加尔等国的失业率也超过40%。

中国如何为这些国家提供帮助呢?

中国对外援助能发挥作用,包括资助职业培训计划,设立新的中小企业发展资金,支持社保计划等。

肯尼亚和塞内加尔等国希望中方支持其推进国内工业化进程。中国企业也能提供帮助,包括在国外设厂,管理经济特区等。这是互利共赢的,能加速中国自身从低端制造业向高端增值服务转型的进程。

高等教育机构之间也有合作机会,人力资源的培养对就业和创新至关重要。

理想的支持对象是最贫困的人口、年轻人、妇女以及受到宗教等歧视的人。

以上是我要说的第二点,下面谈第三点。

人才计划对中国创新和经济转型越来越重要。大家总认为创新源于欧美,但其他发展中国家也能为中国创新提供启迪,而全世界都能成为中国产品和服务的客户。

举个简单的例子来说,中国人习惯用微信在线支付,这似乎是中国独有的事物,可事实上肯尼亚过去10年来一直有类似的服务M-pesa,用手机短信就能付款。就此而言,与肯尼亚加强互动,或许能推进微信和其它在线平台的创新。

吸引较贫困国家的人才来华,这个想法似乎正在成为现实。举例来说,过去10年来非洲国家获得中国奖学金的人数大幅上升,下一步是通过工作许可让这些留学生在中国工作上一段时间,发挥他们的才干。中央政府和地方政府可以鼓励一带一路沿线国家的初创企业来华设立外商独资企业或中外合资企业。

各位来宾,女士们、先生们,今天我很高兴看到裕华区和石家庄市政府采取措施促进工作岗位的创造、推动企业家创业,不光在本地,也包括在国外。裕华区已有6家企业在海外运营。

中央政府和地方政府推进全球工作岗位创造、培养企业家,进而促进全球实现可持续发展第八项目标,这是大有可为的。这也为中国带来互利共赢的机遇。

我希望今天我的发言能给大家提供一些借鉴和启迪。我自己就有在华设立企业的经历,期待着能向对有关想法感兴趣的人提供帮助,一起“走出去”。

非常感谢。

 

以上讲话来自芮婉洁于2017年7月1日在一带一路创新驱动发展国际研讨会裕华峰会上的发言,来自15个国家的政府和企业代表出席了该峰会。

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Edmond is a research analyst who is passionate about sustainable development, innovation, and the environment. Passionate about climate financing, he firmly believe there is a more reliable system to promote equality, growth, and welfare in societies without affecting the ecosystem. Through his skills, knowledge and experienced gained over 7 years, he wants to make an impact in the world of development. Edmond holds a Master’s Degree in Public Policy from Korea Development Institute and a BA Degree (Honors) in Business from University of Derby.

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Hannah Ryder is the Founder & CEO of Development Reimagined. A former diplomat and economist with 20 years of experience, named one of 100 most influential Africans in 2021, she is also Senior Associate for the Africa Program of the Center for Strategic International Studies (CSIS), sits on the Board of the Environmental Defence Fund, and is a member of UAE's International Advisory Council on the New Economy. Prior to her role at DR, Ms Ryder led the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)’s work with China to help it scale up and improve its cooperation with other developing countries, including in Africa. She has also played various advisory roles for the UN and OECD and co-authored the seminal Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change in 2006.

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Hannah Ryder is the Founder & CEO of Development Reimagined. A former diplomat and economist with 20 years of experience, named one of 100 most influential Africans in 2021, she is also Senior Associate for the Africa Program of the Center for Strategic International Studies (CSIS), sits on the Board of the Environmental Defence Fund, and is a member of UAE's International Advisory Council on the New Economy. Prior to her role at DR, Ms Ryder led the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)’s work with China to help it scale up and improve its cooperation with other developing countries, including in Africa. She has also played various advisory roles for the UN and OECD and co-authored the seminal Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change in 2006.