评论:中国维和行动与他国之比较

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本周在中国谁都不会错过的大事就是中国人民解放军建军90周年纪念。纪念包括举行盛大的阅兵式,发表大量关于军队的历史和军队不断取得的新成绩的文章,包括在非洲吉布提建立首个海外基地等。甚至还出现了一款新的自拍手机应用,用这款应用自拍能生成军装照。

 

在所有这些信息中,我们关注到了中国人民解放军在全球做出的贡献,特别是为联合国维和部队所做的贡献,包括执行扫雷、道路修复等任务。

 

联合国目前在全球有16支维和部队,包括在马里、海地、刚果民主共和国、塞浦路斯、黎巴嫩、苏丹和南苏丹等国家。

中国主要在两个方面为维和工作做出了巨大贡献。

 

首先,中国向海外派出维和部队。驻不同热点地区的中国维和部队官兵和警察至少有2515人。中国还计划将这一数字进一步提升至3000人。2015年,中国国家主席习近平承诺中国将组建8000人的联合国维和待命部队。在贡献维和部队人数方面,中国在全球排名第11位,同时也是联合国安理会五常中派出维和部队人数最多的国家。

 

其次,中国直接出资支持联合国维和预算。联合国通过经济体规模等指标明确各国提供维和经费的义务。根据有关指标,中国负担联合国维和经费的比例达10.29%,在2016到17年度,中国提供的联合国维和经费达8亿美元。在维和经费出资方面中国仅次于承担28%以上预算的美国。

 

然而,尽管中国维和部队也领联合国薪水,但联合国维和人员的月薪不分国籍一律设定为1332美元。这也意味着联合国每年要向中国报销4000多万美元的维和经费。在习近平主席新的承诺落实后,这笔报销经费每年将达1.75亿美元以上。联合国还报销各国为维和部队提供的装备支持服务,中国的这部分开支同样得到报销。正由于此,许多穷国尽管经济规模比中国小得多,人口少得多,却都积极派出维和部队。当然,这也说明为什么富国对派出维和部队不太感兴趣,因其不在乎这些额外的经费或因此产生的更多就业机会。

 

2017年,联合国维和部队5个最大来源国为埃塞俄比亚(8221人)、印度(7676人)、巴基斯坦(7123)、孟加拉国(7013人)和卢旺达(6203)。

 

近期4位经济学家主要从过往实践经历方面分析了穷国派维和部队的动机,并比较了联合国成员国向联合国维和行动和非联合国维和行动派兵的情况。报告结论指出,派维和部队的原因更多是为了获得财政收益,而不是维护地区稳定。

 

举例来说,斐济是一个受气候变化影响的岛国。自1970年以来,该国是按国内人口人均计算派出联合国维和部队人数最多的国家。斐济维和人员的薪水每年收入近1000万美元,占斐济国防预算的五分之一。

 

中国参加联合国维和行动也是为了资金吗?维和预算对维和人员固然有吸引力,但中国对联合国维和经费的投入远大于所得,因此更可能的情况是中国参与联合国维和行动有更大的目标。

 

或许中国派出联合国维和部队是为了扩展“软实力”?可能吧。不过直接出资在软实力方面的效果更立竿见影。

 

维护国际和地区稳定也是中国参加维和的一个原因,特别是现在中国企业不断扩大投资,越来越多的中国人来到非洲大陆。

 

当然,许多富国已经在海外有了巨大投资,但并未达到中国当下的规模。这也能解释习近平主席2015年为什么做出另一项承诺,那就是为非盟提供1亿美元无偿援助,支持非洲常备军和危机应对快速反应部队建设。本来预计非洲常备军从2008年就应开始执行任务,但一直面临巨大的财政掣肘。

 

此外,中国2013年向马里派出维和部队,2014年向南苏丹派出作战部队保护平民,这都给中国维和主要目标是维护国际和地区稳定的说法提高了可信度。

 

再者,中国或许也有丰富部队经验的考虑。中国是拥有丰富地形地貌的大国,固然没什么必要派军队去海外体验不同的地形地貌。不过推动部队国际化,了解别国军队如何执行任务,特别是如果同时能让中国军方人员担任更高级别的国际维和指挥官,那就能为解放军带来非常有用的技能。

 

一个多月前,联大投票决定将联合国年度维和经费削减6亿美元。不管派维和部队是出于什么目的,最贫困国家仍会继续积极派出维和部队,拥有90年历史的解放军也会积极参与联合国维和,即便经费减少也会继续推进联合国维和使命。

 

(本文原发表在中国国际电视台网站,链接在此。)

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